Laura Greco, who discovered

When was lung cancer first discovered

What are lung cancer symptoms and signs?

are varied depending upon where and how widespread the tumor is. Warning signs of lung cancer are not always present or easy to identify. Lung cancer may not cause or other symptoms in some cases. A person with lung cancer may have the following kinds of symptoms:

  • No symptoms: In up to 25% of people who get lung cancer, the cancer is first discovered on a routine or as a solitary small mass sometimes called a coin lesion, since on a two-dimensional X-ray or CT scan, the round tumor looks like a coin. These patients with small, single masses often report no symptoms at the time the cancer is discovered.
  • Symptoms related to the cancer: The growth of the cancer and invasion of lung tissues and surrounding tissue may interfere with breathing, leading to symptoms such as, , , , and up blood (hemoptysis). If the cancer has invaded nerves, for example, it may cause that travels down the outside of the arm (called Pancoast syndrome) or of the vocal cords leading to . Invasion of the may lead to. If a large is obstructed, collapse of a portion of the lung may occur and cause infections (abscesses, ) in the obstructed area.
  • Symptoms related to metastasis: Lung cancer that has spread to the bones may produce excruciating at the sites of bone involvement. Cancer that has spread to the brain may cause a number of neurologic symptoms that may include, , , or such as or loss of sensation in parts of the body.
  • Paraneoplastic symptoms: Lung cancers frequently are accompanied by symptoms that result from production of hormone-like substances by the tumor cells. These paraneoplastic syndromes occur most commonly with SCLC but may be seen with any tumor type. A common paraneoplastic syndrome associated with SCLC is the production of a hormone called adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) by the cancer cells, leading to oversecretion of the hormone cortisol by the adrenal glands. The most frequent paraneoplastic syndrome seen with NSCLC is the production of a substance similar to parathyroid hormone, resulting in elevated levels of calcium in the bloodstream.
  • Nonspecific symptoms: Nonspecific symptoms seen with many cancers, including lung cancers, include, weakness, and . Psychological symptoms such as and mood changes also are common.
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